Deprenyl (otherwise known as Selegiline) is currently the most promising
therapy in the struggle against aging.
Recent studies have
shown that Deprenyl has a variety of beneficial effects on brain aging, without
producing toxic side effects.
There is much evidence to suggest
that deprenyl is an antidepressant, a sexual stimulant, an effective treatment
for Parkinsons disease and a useful treatment for Alzheimers disease,
as well as an anti-aging therapy.
Preventing and Treating
The most impressive clinical findings to date
have been that Deprenyl slows the progression of Parkinsons disease, and
extends the life span of Parkinsons disease patients.
a test by Birkmayer in Austria, Parkinsons disease patients receiving Madopar
(L-Dopa plus a decarboxylase inhibitor) and deprenyl lived on average 15 months
longer than patients only receiving Madopar . When 800 Parkinsons disease
patients received deprenyl in a United States and Canadian test in 1989, they
were doing so much better than the control patients (who were
receiving a placebo),
that the scientists directing the program halted it halfway, in order to provide
the control patients with the benefits of Deprenyl. The study concluded that Deprenyl
may help protect the dopamine producing neurons in the substania nigra region
of the brain, from destruction. It is the loss of these neurons and the concurrent
decline in the production of dopamine that causes
Several of the scientists experimenting with deprenyl are convinced that regular
use of Deprenyl at the very early onset of Parkinsons disease could prevent
the disease entirely.
Accordingly to neurologist J William
Langston of the Institute for Medical Research in San Jose, California the
evidence that Deprenyl can prevent Parkinsons disease is strong and is getting
stronger all the time. Doctor Langston points to three compelling findings;
Deprenyl is a powerful selective inhibitor of Monomine Oxidase B (MAO-B), the
specific form of the enzyme that breaks dopamine into other compounds, which are
then excreted. There is a marked age related rise in MAO levels, which leads to
an increasing incidence of depression with advancing age. Doctor Langston also
thinks that the specific type of MAO inhibition caused by Deprenyl
exert a protective effect on the neurons that produce dopamine.
There is evidence that the dopamine producing neurons may be destroyed or made
dysfunctional as a result of side effects caused by dopamine metabolism itself.
Deprenyl inhibits the activity of one of the prime metabolites of dopamine called
6-OHDA, which generates oxidative free radical reactions that have been shown
to have neurotoxic effects on brain neurons.
(c) Deprenyl protects
dopaminergic neurons from environmental toxicity, caused by agents such as MPTP,
a drug which caused severe Parkinsons symptoms in young people who took
it as a street drug in the 1970s. Its been shown that the toxic chemicals
produced during the oxidation of MPTP destroy dopamine producing neurons and that
injections of Deprenyl completely block this
Unique MAO-B Inhibitor
Scientists have been exploring the use of Deprenyl
as a treatment for Alzheimers Disease, because of its ability to inhibit
the activity of MAO-B. MAO-B has been shown to oxidize the neurotransmitters dopamine,
norepinephrine and phenylethylamine.
are responsible for memory,
movement, co-ordination and sex drive, and these
are all functions that decline dramatically in Alzheimer patients as in Parkinsons
Since Deprenyl at 10mg daily has been
shown to reduce the MAO-B oxidation of these neurotransmitters by 90%, it is thought
that treating Alzheimer patients with Deprenyl will improve their memory and behaviour
by increasing the availability of these neurotransmitters, and perhaps slow down
the brain degeneration.
The earliest studies in 1987, at the
Ntional Institute of Mental Health, treated 17 moderately impaired Alzheimer patients
with either a placebo, or 10mg of Deprenyl daily for 28 days, or 40mg of Deprenyl
for 35 days. Two patients at 40 mg daily suffered from hypertension, but there
were no other serious side effects for the other patients.
scientists concluded significant changes for the better in behaviour, cognitive
function, and neuroendocrine function compared to placebo when the patients received
10mg per day of Deprenyl, and lesser beneficial changes (with greater side effects),
when the patients received 40mg per day of Deprenyl. There were decreases
in anxiety, depression, physical tension, agitation and hostility and increases
in verbal communication, positive feelings about life and
in social activities.
More recent studies conducted at the
Perugia University Italy treated 20 Alzheimer patients with mild to moderate Alzheimers
for a 3 month period. The scientists concluded:
significant improvements when the patients were
given Deprenyl in word fluency,
digit span, long term spatial memory,
letter cancellation, picture cancellation,
copy drawing, verbal memory
Deprenyl represents an
efficacious, well tolerated
and therefore reliable treatment for Alzheimers
Further studies at the University of Milan in
1991 with 117 patients receiving 10mg of Deprenyl or a placebo, for a 3 month
Deprenyl treated patients improved
their performance, while
that of the placebo treated group worsened
seems to be an
effective treatment for patients with Alzheimers disease.
for Use in Alzheimers Disease
Although more research needs to
be conducted to further explore the use of Deprenyl in the treatment of Alzheimers
disease, there are some good reasons why deprenyl should be seriously considered.
The findings of three controlled placebo studies, show that Deprenyl at 10mg daily
is effective in improving the memory and behaviour of Alzheimer patients.
The safety Deprenyl at 10mg daily has been established, with thousands of Parkinsons
disease patients who have been taking the drug for years.
That Alzheimer patients are likely to benefit from the anti- Parkinson disease
and anti-aging benefits of Deprenyl.
(D) That Deprenyl in
combination with other drugs andsupplements provides synergistic effects (improved
benefits) and maybe more effective in improving memory in Alzheimer patients than
any other therapy currently available.
Slowing the Aging
Parkinsons disease seems to be a form of accelerated
aging, caused by the action of 6-OHDA. All elderly people suffer from symptoms
of Parkinsons disease, such as loss of co-ordination, shuffling and diminution
of sex drive. This is because the exact same neurons that are destroyed in Parkinsons
disease are also the same destroyed in normal aging, they just diminish at a slower
rate. It is not until 80% of these neurons have diminished that the symptoms of
disease are generally diagnosed.
The findings suggest that
long term usage of deprenyl can slow down the aging process itself, a conclusion
arrived at over 20 years ago by the Hungarian pharmacologist Joseph Knoll, who
developed Deprenyl in 1965.
Figure above shows the age related decline of dopamine
at 12% per decade past the age of 40, (Dean, Fowkes and Morgenthaler). Doctor
Knolls study included 24 month old rats (65 years in human terms). They
were given injections 3 times a week of a 0.25mg/ kg of Deprenyl, whilst the control
animals received saline injections. The injections were continued until the animals
The degree of life span reported by Doctor Knoll is unprecedented for
a clinically available therapy. The rats lived to an age equivalent in human terms
of 150 years! It appears that deprenyl therapy slows down aging in a dramatic
Such an increase in life span could be the most important break
the history of medicine. Doctor Knolls efforts could have been simply dismissed
out of hand, were it not for further evidence. More recent studies have been under
taken by the Univeristy of Toronto Scientists at the University of Toronto in
1989, tried to duplicate Doctor Knolls efforts in another strain of rats.
In the first experiment, 62 animals, 24 to 25 months of age were assigned to random
groups, with the animals receiving 3 injections each week of a solution of 0.25%
Deprenyl. The remainder of the animals received saline injections.
of the Study
The major findings of the study was that the Deprenyl
group survived significantly longer than the control group. The average survival
time of the Deprenyl group was 133.7 days and the average survival time of the
control group was 114.7 days. The average maximum survival time of the Deprenyl
group was 248.4 days compared to 212.1 days in the control group.
animal in the deprenyl group survived 315 days and the longest span for the control
group was 251 days. During autopsies no specific factors were attributable to
The conclusion of the study was that Deprenyl delayed
aging of organs and that the Deprenyl treated animals were healthier
the control animals.
the Toronto study produced a smaller increase in the life span of Deprenyl treated
animals, than doctor Knolls, there were a number of other factors, which
included the types, ages and weights of rats that were different between the two
studies. The Toronto scientists accepted the validity of Doctor Knolls findings.
Doctor Knoll is now 75 years old and he takes Deprenyl
and recommends that anyone over the age of 45 take it. As
he points out, the
brains output of dopamine declines 13% per decade
after the age of 45 and Deprenyl
is needed to protect the brains
dopamine producing brain cells from destruction.
and Side Effects
Doctor Knoll recommends taking 1 (5mg) tablet of Deprenyl
three times a week. Some life extensionists recommend taking 5mg of Deprenyl daily,
with an occasional break. It should be noted that no one except those suffering
from Parkinsons disease should exceed these dosage levels.
treatment of Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers diseae, the dosage
of 10mg daily appears to be not only the most effective level, but also the most
side effect free level. There is evidence that Deprenyl is less effective and
can produce undesirable eside effects at higher dosages. But Deprenyl is remarkably
safe and effective at lower dosages. Trade names include Eldepryl , Selegiline
The very latest evidence
about Deprenyl use as a longevity/anti-aging product, is to maintain recommended
dosages for a few months and then to reduce those dosages to approximately one
third to one half.
Animal experiments show us that it is those
who take low regular dosages of Deprenyl that are likely to live longer than those
who take higher dosages of Deprenyl over the same period. As a result an easy
to use low dosage is favourable in such circumstances.
All Prices are subject to change based on the latest prices from IAS.
no question that my tinnitus has subsided whilst using the vinpocetine, but it's
more than that I do feel better." F.H.G., Te
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(3) Langston W: Science
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(4) University of Toronto Life Sciences 47 415-420
(1) Progress in Neuro psychopharmacology. Biology and
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(2) Archives of General Psychiatry vol 44 427-433
(3) Clinical Neuropharmacology Vol 13 No2 157-163 1990.
European Neurology 31 100-107 1991.
(5) Dean W, Multi functional
deprenyl anti-Aging Bulletin,
Volume 3 issue 1, March 1997, International
(6) Knoll J, Deprenyl and related substances,
a strategy to slow
aging of the mammalian brain. 1st Monte Carlo anti-Aging
Deprenyl Ingredients and
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